attenuate vs extenuate

attenuate extenuate


  • 1) botany, of leaves Gradually tapering into a petiole-like extension toward the base.
  • 2) Botany Gradually tapering to a slender point.
  • 3) Reduced or weakened, as in strength, value, or virulence.
  • 4) Made thin or less viscid; rarefied.
  • 5) Made thin or slender.
  • 6) transitive To weaken.
  • 7) transitive, medicine To reduce the virulence of a bacteria or virus.
  • 8) transitive, electronics To reduce the amplitude of an electrical signal.
  • 9) transitive To make thinner, as by physically reshaping, starving, or decaying.
  • 10) transitive To reduce in size, force, value, amount, or degree.
  • 11) transitive To rarefy.
  • 12) become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude
  • 13) To lessen; diminish: said of number. Howell.
  • 14) Of thin consistency; dilute; rarefied.
  • 15) To make thin or rare; reduce in density; increase the fluidity or rarity of.
  • 16) Slender; thin.
  • 17) To reduce by comminution or attrition; make small or fine: as, extremely attenuated particles of dust or flour.
  • 18) To become thin, slender, or fine; diminish; lessen.
  • 19) To make thin or slender; reduce in thickness; wear or draw down: as, an attenuated thread or wire.
  • 20) Figuratively, to weaken or reduce in force, effect, or value; render meager or jejune; fine down.
  • 21) In botany, tapering gradually to a narrow extremity.
  • 22) In brewing and distilling, to undergo the process of attenuation. See attenuation, 4.
  • 23) To lessen in complexity or intensity; reduce in strength or energy; simplify; weaken: as, the attenuated remedies of the homeopathists.
  • 24) Electronics To reduce (the amplitude of an electrical signal) with little or no distortion.
  • 25) To lessen the density of; rarefy.
  • 26) To become thin, weak, or fine.
  • 27) To reduce in force, value, amount, or degree; weaken.
  • 28) Biology To make (bacteria or viruses) less virulent.
  • 29) To make slender, fine, or small.
  • 30) To become thin, slender, or fine; to grow less; to lessen.
  • 31) To make thin or slender, as by mechanical or chemical action upon inanimate objects, or by the effects of starvation, disease, etc., upon living bodies.
  • 32) To make thin or less consistent; to render less viscid or dense; to rarefy. Specifically: To subtilize, as the humors of the body, or to break them into finer parts.
  • 33) To lessen the amount, force, or value of; to make less complex; to weaken.


  • 1) obsolete Thin; slender.
  • 2) transitive To make thin or slender; to draw out so as to lessen the thickness.
  • 3) obsolete To lower or degrade; to detract from.
  • 4) transitive To lessen; to palliate; to lessen or weaken the force of; to diminish the conception of, as crime, guilt, faults, ills, accusations, etc.; -- opposed to aggravate.
  • 5) To become thin or thinner or more slender; be drawn out or attenuated.
  • 6) SynonymsSeepalliate.
  • 7) Thin; slender.
  • 8) Thin;slender.
  • 9) Synonyms See palliate.
  • 10) To detract from, as a person or thing; lessen in honor, estimation, or importance.
  • 11) To make thin, lean, slender, or rare; reduce in thickness or density; draw out; attenuate.
  • 12) To make smaller in degree or appearance; make less blamable in fact or in estimation; lower in importance or degree, as a fault or crime; mitigate; palliate: opposed to aggravate.
  • 13) To become thinner; to make excuses; to advance palliating considerations.
  • 14) To belittle; disparage.
  • 15) To mitigate or lessen.
  • 16) To lessen or appear to lessen the seriousness or extent of (an offense, for example), especially by providing partial excuses.
  • 17) To make thin or emaciated.
  • 18) To make thin or slender; to draw out so as to lessen the thickness.
  • 19) To lessen; to palliate; to lessen or weaken the force of; to diminish the conception of, as crime, guilt, faults, ills, accusations, etc.; -- opposed to aggravate.


  • 1) You could never eliminate risk, but preparation and training could attenuate it.
  • 2) This being correctly guessed to represent "attenuate" (at ten you ate), the other side goes from the room and the previous performers become the audience.
  • 3) Although the United States "has done as good a job as it could have" in trying to make the ANA mirror the broader society, Mason said, it can only "attenuate" rather than prevent such a war in the future, even with a larger troop presence.
  • 4) Would my contributions be more palatable were I to attenuate the libertarianism?
  • 5) Rob Pegoraro: Most of the walls in my house are also plaster over lathe--it's a real treat to have to cut into that to move an electrical outlet--but I haven't seen that attenuate WiFi that much.
  • 6) Reforming divorce laws likely would attenuate the divorce rate as well as the risks inherent to later births with new partners.
  • 7) Yet, Dr. Maalouf doesn't rule out the rise of new 'media barons' as he argues that "control by the rich and powerful is inescapable in a capitalist system" while hoping that social networks and the Internet in general help attenuate the problem.
  • 8) This piece, one in a series referencing visual artists, is largely centered on a marimba the performer plays in non-standard ways that allow him to attenuate the sound either by direct dampening with the hands or using atypical mallets for the job.
  • 9) This is usually what happens when Congress does not have the will to enact laws that are prophylactic in nature or attenuate the problem before it becomes a crisis.
  • 10) ‘I do not believe this attenuates the force of any judgement against those responsible for such attacks.’
  • 11) ‘I think that there are strategies by which we can at least attenuate the negative effects of globalisation, but these strategies need to be more sophisticated than organised protest.’
  • 12) ‘Particularly in disadvantaged areas, this perception of one's own power as a parent seems to be a promising avenue for attenuating the potentially harmful effects of the environment on children's development.’
  • 13) ‘Although the data presented here suggest that vitamin C supplementation could be clinically useful in attenuating the effects of smoking on lung development, this study has a number of limitations.’
  • 14) ‘However, this beneficial effect is attenuated, and possibly reversed, after much longer treatment regimens.’
  • 15) ‘Ascorbate treatment also attenuated the detrimental effects of the silver nitrate on the plant tissue, considerably reducing the necrotic lesions.’
  • 16) ‘Some research suggests, however, that the effects of aging are attenuated not by how much people receive from their community but by how much they contribute to it.’
  • 17) ‘However, the magnitude of the effect was clearly attenuated.’
  • 18) ‘Furthermore, we cannot rule out the possibility that a selection effect attenuated some of the findings for the Canadian sample.’
  • 19) ‘This may have attenuated the effect of corporate university training on performance.’
  • 20) ‘We expected that family conflict and depression symptoms would generally function as mediators, but also assessed whether they would exacerbate or attenuate the effects of parental drinking problems on children's adjustment.’
  • 21) ‘In other words, we anticipated that positive family relationships would attenuate the effect of individual differences that have been shown to be related to depressed mood.’
  • 22) ‘Clinicians should refer cocaine-exposed children to early intervention services to attenuate long-term effects.’
  • 23) ‘So it's feasible to raise enough antibody there to either completely block or very substantially attenuate the effects that nicotine would have.’
  • 24) ‘Previous research has shown that high-stress individuals and their spouses are at risk for a variety of negative outcomes, including marital and emotional distress, and that social support may attenuate these effects.’
  • 25) ‘Prenatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased levels of elastin content in the lungs of offspring, and these effects were slightly attenuated by vitamin C.’
  • 26) ‘Theoretically this effect is maximised the longer the waiting time; when waiting time is relatively short the effect is attenuated.’
  • 27) ‘This may have attenuated any effect of treatment.’
  • 28) ‘There is scientific evidence demonstrating that, so far as the individual is motivated for carrying out the work, the negative effect of long hours is attenuated.’
  • 29) ‘Indeed, distance may strengthen, rather than attenuate social relationships, Fischer argues, and that seems to have been the case in this immigrant community.’
  • 30) ‘Social inequalities could never be eliminated, only attenuated.’
  • 31) ‘In recent years, engineers have developed receivers that will perform satisfactorily even with multipath-corrupted and severely attenuated signals such as those found indoors.’
  • 32) ‘New designs have greatly improved the sensitivity of GPS receivers so they can make code-phase measurements even on the severely attenuated signals inside buildings.’
  • 33) ‘However, a possible drawback is that, as a consequence of relatively high conductivities, low frequency electric fields are severely attenuated in biological tissues.’
  • 34) ‘As a result of the high electrical conductivity of sea water, signals are attenuated rapidly as they propagate downward through it.’
  • 35) ‘Semiconductor photodiodes offer high-sensitivity and low-noise operation, enabling them to detect very low light levels; attenuating filters must be used for high powers.’
  • 36) ‘The pressure pulse will then propagate mainly at that specific frequency along the meridian since it is minimally attenuated at the resonant frequency.’
  • 37) ‘Despite the fact that the charge on the metal is high, the field acting on the membrane is greatly attenuated by the electrolyte ions in the thin layer of solvent.’
  • 38) ‘You don't have a choice in stereo: You force everything into that left/right soundfield by selectively boosting or attenuating certain frequencies to enhance those instruments.’
  • 39) ‘Notice that UHF frequencies are attenuated much more than VHF.’
  • 40) ‘If this signal is to be passed to downstream devices, it must be amplified and the jitter eliminated or attenuated.’
  • 41) ‘Varicella-zoster virus vaccine is a live attenuated virus that becomes latent after vaccination.’
  • 42) ‘BCG is a live attenuated vaccine and is being given routinely to all newborns under the universal immunization programme.’
  • 43) ‘Childhood vaccination against varicella with a live attenuated vaccine is now common in the United States and may be introduced elsewhere.’
  • 44) ‘Inactivated vaccines don't seem to work as well as live attenuated vaccines, and in this review at least, did not work at all in children under 2.’
  • 45) ‘This live, attenuated vaccine contains a weakened form of the tularemia bacterium, enabling the immune system to recognize and produce neutralizing antibodies against the bacterium if it is encountered again.’
  • 46) ‘The authors conclude that live, attenuated intranasally administered influenza vaccine is safe and effective in healthy adults.’
  • 47) ‘An existing, attenuated vaccine against yellow fever is not very effective for just this reason and has to be administered every four years.’
  • 48) ‘Proactive primary prevention presumes that the pathogen can be attenuated or prevented from reaching the individual.’
  • 49) ‘The measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses.’
  • 50) ‘However, other strains of probiotic organisms actually attenuated the cytokine response.’
  • 51) ‘Not only was this well tolerated, but a myriad of physiological, biochemical, and histological measures of lung damage and inflammation were considerably attenuated, and mortality was reduced.’
  • 52) ‘Surfactant therapy attenuated this deterioration, but not completely.’
  • 53) ‘Because vaccination attenuates the clinical presentation of pertussis, a more sensitive case definition than spasmodic cough of two weeks should be adopted in vaccinated populations.’
  • 54) ‘Long-term exposure to allergens can attenuate inflammation and revert airway hyperreactivity to normal responsiveness.’
  • 55) ‘In contrast, fasting, which reduces serum leptin, attenuates ozone-induced inflammation.’
  • 56) ‘Overall, the inflammatory response was attenuated by hydrocortisone.’
  • 57) ‘To date, only a single randomized placebo-controlled trial has been done to determine whether augmentation therapy attenuates the development of emphysema.’
  • 58) ‘Live, attenuated influenza vaccine was licensed in 2003 for intranasal administration to healthy children and adults five to 49 years of age.’
  • 59) ‘Recently, a live attenuated virus preparation was developed that reduced the number of infections by 19 to 24 percent when given intranasally to healthy adult volunteers.’
  • 60) ‘Adverse events such as anaphylaxis may be related to a sensitivity to vaccine components rather than to the attenuated vaccine virus itself.’
  • 61) ‘In one live, attenuated vaccine approach, scientists genetically modify the TB bacterium in the laboratory, thereby reducing its ability to cause disease.’
  • 62) ‘Live, attenuated influenza virus vaccine and placebo were administered as an intranasal spray in a single dose between mid-September and mid-November.’
  • 63) ‘Microscopic examination revealed the cysts were of varying size and shape and were lined by thin, attenuated endothelial cells.’
  • 64) ‘The pink transparent band and the bold red title echo the scrawled writing of the original document shown in the photo and the thin, attenuated rubber band holding it all together.’
  • 65) ‘In the earthly zone, which includes a gallery of portraits of Toledan gentlemen, the figures are only mildly attenuated and their garments are painted with the best Venetian illusionistic technique.’
  • 66) ‘In 1 patient, the capsular tissue was so thin and attenuated that the planned revision capsular shift procedure was aborted after a diagnostic arthroscopy.’
  • 67) ‘The oddly attenuated, gothic proportions of her figures, for example, derive from Varo's admiration for El Greco.’
  • 68) ‘There was a faint echo of Matisse's floral gouaches découpées, whirled into three dimensions, but Brough's vocabulary of shapes, some as attenuated as bird wings, is entirely her own.’
  • 69) ‘At some moments the soloist's rubato might have seemed overly attenuated, but it would be curmudgeonly to complain, particularly in the light of his ravishingly beautiful treatment of sequential passages.’
  • 70) ‘Against the wall of Baghel's compound stood a row of finished metal figurines: as attenuated, and retro-modern, as those of Amadeo Modigliani.’
  • 71) ‘On the other hand, for their own analysis Carling et al. used an attenuate isosceles triangle with a blunt snout as their model organism, rather than the profile of an eel.’


  • 1) This I neither "extenuate" nor "set down in malice," but merely record the fact.
  • 2) I would not "set down aught in malice," I would rather "extenuate," yet am I bound in truth to say that
  • 3) It is true the people at the Cascades had suffered much, and that their wives and children had been murdered before their eyes, but to wreak vengeance on Spencer's unoffending family, who had walked into their settlement under the protection of a friendly alliance, was an unparalleled outrage which nothing can justify or extenuate.
  • 4) The false prophets are those who do not present the word of God in its purity, but they dilute and extenuate it with a thousand human words that come from out of their heart.
  • 5) In the mean time, provision was made of many Flambeaux and Torches, not only for the Service of their Light, but to help extenuate those poysonous Particles there gather'd by means of the want of Air.
  • 6) There was nothing she would not have done to extenuate her error, and to obviate its ill effect upon
  • 7) I can explain (not extenuate) my mistake only by a misprint in Al – Siyúti (p. 554).
  • 8) Mr. Archer, whose criticism of this play is extraordinarily brilliant, does his best to extenuate the stiffness of it.
  • 9) ‘Members of the SWC jury said, while commenting on one case, that infanticide is an abominable crime and those who commit it cannot be exonerated, whatever the extenuating circumstances.’
  • 10) ‘Zero tolerance means that if you test positive for prohibited substance use, then barring any exculpatory or extenuating circumstances, it is likely that you will be issued with a termination notice or reduced in rank.’
  • 11) ‘This still leaves scope for the sentence to be lessened in the light of extenuating circumstances to do with the crime itself.’
  • 12) ‘If you currently have an approved vacation, contact your CTM, Delivery Manager, Captain to establish alternate dates or justify extenuating circumstances.’
  • 13) ‘The two also have a stimulating discussion about whether murder can ever be justified by extenuating circumstances.’
  • 14) ‘Labour leader Ian Male said last night that the increases could not be morally justified, although there were extenuating circumstances.’
  • 15) ‘There are extenuating circumstances, her ignorance, her naivety, her youth (not a crime, one character tries to reassure her), and another's scheming and deception.’
  • 16) ‘There were no extenuating circumstances nor can the Board imagine any that could have justified his continuance.’
  • 17) ‘Despite anguished pleas of extenuating circumstances by the desperate father, the school system has so far adamantly insisted that automatic punishments for weapon possession in school are inviolate.’
  • 18) ‘‘Unless there are the most extenuating circumstances, a person convicted of murder can expect no clemency until he or she has served an extremely lengthy sentence,’ Mr Holmes said.’
  • 19) ‘And there are other considerations-the value of the stolen property, the absence of any extenuating circumstances like dire need, or repentance and restoration of property.’
  • 20) ‘Escudie said ‘a small number’ have been granted emergency extensions by military commanders because of extenuating circumstances, including deaths in the family.’
  • 21) ‘I do think the extenuating circumstances mean that a transfer is necessary.’
  • 22) ‘She is unconcerned with explanations, alternative interpretations of the evidence (which is flimsy to begin with), extenuating circumstances.’
  • 23) ‘According to provincial law, when a death occurs in Regina a physician or, in extenuating circumstances, a coroner must complete a Medical Certificate of Death with respect to the deceased.’
  • 24) ‘Orders came down that anyone who was currently out of status, regardless of any pending applications or extenuating circumstances, was to be automatically detained.’
  • 25) ‘Fialkowski says that students with a high remaining balance due to extenuating circumstances could request a refund or exemption, but that this is rare, and only granted on an individual basis.’
  • 26) ‘During this review, additional information was made available to suggest that there were extenuating circumstances and that the actions of the officer were not representative of his normal conduct.’
  • 27) ‘In Florida, you can be held for 21 days before you're released on your own recognizance unless the state has some kind of extenuating circumstances to hold you.’
  • 28) ‘Effective in the 2003 fall semester, the university will change the way it handles requests by students for course withdrawal under extenuating circumstances.’
  • 29) ‘A doctrinal synthesis may be a negative guide, eliminating erroneous interpretation, but only in a very extenuated sense would it be a positive aid to interpretation.’
  • 30) ‘Both outfits extenuated the tans and muscles that had grown over the summer.’
  • 31) ‘Its rather angular and extenuated figures are reminiscent of those of a pyxis in Berkeley which has already been discussed in its relation to our painter.’
  • 32) ‘On one wall, there is a gallery of grave, extenuated figures that recall El Greco.’

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