adduce vs deduce vs deduct

adduce deduce deduct


  • 1) transitive To bring forward or offer, as an argument, passage, or consideration which bears on a statement or case; to cite; to allege.
  • 2) To bring forward, present, or offer; advance; cite; name or instance as authority or evidence for what one advances.
  • 3) Synonyms Adduce, Allege, Assign, Advance, Offer, Cite. Offer and assign are the least forcible of these words. To offer is simply to present for acceptance. We may offer a plea, an apology, or an excuse, but it may not be accepted. We may assign a reason, but it may not be the real or only reason which might be given by us. We may advance an opinion or a theory, and may cite authorities in support of it Allege is the most positive of all these words. To allege is to make an unsupported statement regarding something; to adduce, on the other hand, is to bring forward proofs or evidence in support of some statement or proposition already made: as, he alleged that he had been robbed by A. B., but adduced no proof in support of his allegation.
  • 4) To cite as an example or means of proof in an argument.
  • 5) To bring forward or offer, as an argument, passage, or consideration which bears on a statement or case; to cite; to allege.


  • 1) obsolete To take away; to deduct; to subtract.
  • 2) transitive To reach a conclusion by applying rules of logic to given premises.
  • 3) obsolete To lead forth.
  • 4) Todeduct.
  • 5) To deduct.
  • 6) To trace the course of; describe from first to last.
  • 7) To derive or conclude as a result of a known principle; draw as a necessary conclusion; infer from what is known or believed. See deduction, and deductive reasoning, under deductive.
  • 8) Todraw;derive;trace.
  • 9) To bring before a court of justice for decision.
  • 10) To draw; derive; trace.
  • 11) To lead forth or away; conduct.
  • 12) To trace the origin or derivation of.
  • 13) To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning.
  • 14) To infer from a general principle; reason deductively.
  • 15) To derive or draw; to derive by logical process; to obtain or arrive at as the result of reasoning; to gather, as a truth or opinion, from what precedes or from premises; to infer; -- with from or out of.
  • 16) A Latinism To lead forth.


  • 1) To take one thing from another; remove from; make smaller by some amount.
  • 2) To bring down; reduce.
  • 3) Totraceout;setforth.
  • 4) To trace out; set forth.
  • 5) To lead forth or away; deduce; conduct.
  • 6) To take away, separate, or remove in numbering, estimating, or calculating; subtract, as a counterbalancing item or particular: as, to deduct losses from the total receipts; from the amount of profits deduct the freight-charges.
  • 7) Synonyms Deduct, Subtract. These words cannot properly be used interchangeably. Deduct is to lead away, set aside, in a general or distributive sense; subtract, to draw off, remove, in a literal or collective sense. In settling a mercantile account, certain items, as charges, losses, etc., are deducted by being added together and their total subtracted from the grand total of the transaction. From a parcel of goods of known value or number articles are subtracted or literally taken away as required; the value or number of the remainder at any time may be ascertained by deducting the value or number of those taken from the original package; and this again is effected by subtracting the figures representing the smaller amount from those representing the larger.
  • 8) To derive by deduction; deduce.
  • 9) To take away a desirable part.
  • 10) To take away (a quantity) from another; subtract.
  • 11) obsolete To lead forth or out.
  • 12) To take away, separate, or remove, in numbering, estimating, or calculating; to subtract; -- often with from or out of.
  • 13) obsolete To reduce; to diminish.


  • 1) Unfortunately, this was not a line of reasoning Cazaril could adduce in his defense.
  • 2) To win, “Virgin Mobile must adduce evidence that would permit a reasonable jury to find that someone committed an act of direct infringement and that MetroPCS either intentionally induced that person to commit the act or continued to supply reflashed handsets to that person when it knew or had reason to know that he was engaging in trademark infringement.”
  • 3) On the one hand, I really, honestly, do see, hear, and experience everything that atheists adduce as evidence that God is an illusion.
  • 4) As long as events adduce to the growth of government, Obama is satisfied to take no action.
  • 5) Wilberforce was quite prepared to allow science unfettered freedom to research, and to accepts its findings, just because he did not think that science was the sole truth; if facts emerged which proved that men were descended from some primordial fungus, he could agree, but go on to enter a further ` but ', and adduce further considerations that marked humanity off from the rest of creation.
  • 6) On the other hand, if events adduce to the furtherance of law, independence, freedom, then he spares no effort to squelch it.
  • 7) Additionally, suppose the designer placed into the cell some other systems for which we cannot adduce enough evidence to conclude design.
  • 8) What evidence can you adduce that we are plagued by a great many “frivolous” medical malpractice suits?
  • 9) And what examples can you adduce of “inflammatory speech” by VC bloggers?
  • 10) Pundits who want to cut doctors 'pay never adduce any credible reasons for their proposal.
  • 11) ‘This may occur when an accused adduces sufficient evidence to raise a doubt about his guilt but the jury is not convinced on a balance of probabilities that his account is true.’
  • 12) ‘No specific evidence has been adduced in respect of this allegation.’
  • 13) ‘A number of proposal forms were adduced in evidence to indicate the areas of concern to yacht insurers.’
  • 14) ‘We ruled that the appellant could and should call him and, in the first instance, adduce whatever evidence he now wished to give.’
  • 15) ‘They adduce no evidence for this proposition, beyond the intuition that giving three vaccines simultaneously is too much for the infantile immune system.’
  • 16) ‘Yet he adduces no evidence to contradict this point.’
  • 17) ‘Secondly, there has never been adduced a body of evidence that demonstrates the need to make a new crime out of a hitherto legitimate activity.’
  • 18) ‘I do not see what responsibility the Minister of Police has for evidence adduced by Crown counsel during a trial.’
  • 19) ‘The commissioner admitted that no evidence had been adduced to justify a jury verdict of murder.’
  • 20) ‘In the book, he adduced a wealth of evidence to support his thoughts.’
  • 21) ‘It does not require even half an education to guess why he feels obliged to adduce flimsy evidence and extrapolate fanciful conclusions from it.’
  • 22) ‘Editors at the New York Times did not need to be clairvoyant to adduce the massive evidence to that effect.’
  • 23) ‘There may well be cases in which it would be not necessary to adduce such evidence - as for instance, if an architect omitted to provide a front door to the premises.’
  • 24) ‘That was a case where diminished responsibility was not raised at the trial but it was later sought to adduce medical evidence on the issue.’
  • 25) ‘Rather, before even adducing the evidence, they have already made up their minds that the answer is ‘yes’.’
  • 26) ‘Counsel gave another reason for adducing the evidence which it appears the judge did not accept.’
  • 27) ‘If the defendant adduces no evidence there is nothing to rebut the inference of negligence and the plaintiff will have proved his case.’
  • 28) ‘A certain amount of evidence was adduced on this point.’
  • 29) ‘I see no difficulty in the landlord recovering damages at the market rate even though he has adduced no evidence that he would or could have relet the property.’
  • 30) ‘However, it proceeded to speculate on the safety of their conviction with reference to the weight of the evidence adduced by the prosecution.’


  • 1) Now let us consider the situation and see what may be deduced from it.
  • 2) We can perhaps deduce only one thing from this.
  • 3) Different moulds peak at certain times of the year and it may be possible from this to deduce which one is the culprit.
  • 4) I looked again at the vast object being knitted and deduced that it must be a blanket.
  • 5) It took me decades to realise what an odd thing this was, longer still to deduce the reason.
  • 6) One can reasonably deduce that 150 years of sporting interest have been good for nature conservation on this site.
  • 7) First they must deduce who is hiding what, and to what extreme they will go to protect their positions.
  • 8) You cannot properly reason, deduce or infer without a framework or structure on which to hang individual items of information.
  • 9) As you may have deduced, they are not the good guys, but they are survivors.
  • 10) It cannot deduce from a book the nature of the being who wrote it.
  • 11) As on can deduce from the quote from Wilson above, the Germans may have copied their racism from Anglo-phone countries, but Anglophone and French countries also had strong humanistic and egalitarian traditions that they did not copy.
  • 12) Thus the only question left is why should one deduce from a “booklet explaining the phases of the moon” that the product has anything to do with Biodynamics?
  • 13) There is thus no reason to automatically deduce from a booklet and label about the moon that the vineyards are farmed biodynamically for they can be organic as well.
  • 14) That man has a duty to so domesticate his passions to serve his reason we can deduce from the raw fact that the appetites are a multitude of contradictory desires, as easily able to be inconsistent with surrounding facts of reality as consistent.
  • 15) What his movements were after that I had largely to deduce from the facts of the situation, for I could scarcely see him in the dim starlight.
  • 16) The physicist Brian Pippard, who held Maxwell’s old chair†¦ at the University of Cambridge, has put it thus: ‘What is surely impossible is that a theoretical physicist, given unlimited computing power, should deduce from the law of physics that a certain complex structure is aware of its own existence. ’” (p44)
  • 17) So talking of conclusions, what can we deduce from the evening?
  • 18) At any rate, the point of that was going to be that my plan failed, and I was unable to deduce from the search return which obscure text you were looking at.
  • 19) ‘The Academics took the part of the questioner, who puts questions to his interlocutors and deduces conclusions that are unwelcome to them from their answers.’
  • 20) ‘Hempel and Oppenheim made the important logical point that statements about a phenomenon cannot be deduced from general laws alone.’
  • 21) ‘And with a great leap of logical brilliance, he deduced that he was looking at a ceiling.’
  • 22) ‘Some dates and places from this period can again be deduced from descriptions of astronomical events recorded by al-Biruni.’
  • 23) ‘From this it was deduced that Diophantus wrote around 250 AD and the dates we have given for him are based on this argument.’
  • 24) ‘Less obvious truths are deduced from these self-evident beginnings by individually obvious steps.’
  • 25) ‘Joseph Raphson's life can only be deduced from a number of pointers.’
  • 26) ‘We have very little information about Bhaskara I's life except what can be deduced from his writings.’
  • 27) ‘It can also be deduced from a copy of the second treatise of Serenus which has survived.’
  • 28) ‘Examples include Charles Darwin deducing the fact of evolution and then formulating a powerful theory to explain it, thus laying the very foundation of our modern understanding of life.’
  • 29) ‘He deduces this curious conclusion from their view that a site would have no economic value were it not for the community around it, assuming that this implies that the community is the sole producer.’
  • 30) ‘It's not possible to deduce moral conclusions from first principles.’
  • 31) ‘The conclusions he deduced from it depended entirely on his empirical assumptions.’
  • 32) ‘As conscious beings we can deduce that the logical conclusion of this decline is our extinction.’
  • 33) ‘The comet made no reappearance and again Lexell correctly deduced that Jupiter had changed the orbit so much that it was thrown far away from the Sun.’
  • 34) ‘Scientists have deduced that the known physical universe has existed for approx 12 billion years since the Big Bang.’
  • 35) ‘Much can be deduced from his art, but the facts surrounding his life remain obscure to an English-speaking audience.’
  • 36) ‘Newton had deduced from his theory of gravitation that the Earth would be flattened at the poles.’
  • 37) ‘Nothing further is to be deduced from this reference.’
  • 38) ‘Although the reason is unclear I think that, as my neighbour called for my post, it was deduced that I no longer required my box.’


  • 1) You can also deduct certain tax reliefs to cut your adjusted net income.
  • 2) There are limits on the amount you can deduct for depreciation of your car.
  • 3) Interest on offshore savings is paid gross without income tax being deducted.
  • 4) Some firms do not deduct tax payments.
  • 5) The gift is deducted after national insurance contributions but before income tax is deducted.
  • 6) Employers currently deduct income tax from salaries and then pay the rest to employees.
  • 7) Both these payments are deducted from wages as part of the national insurance contribution.
  • 8) Stars should have their tax deducted at source like all of us.
  • 9) Donations in wills are deducted before the tax.
  • 10) Drivers will no longer have to remember to pay because they will be able to have payments deducted on entering the zone.
  • 11) Others have said they will deduct part of lecturers' salaries.
  • 12) The company's payments of interest are regarded as a cost and are deducted from taxable income.
  • 13) When a company borrows money, it can deduct interest payments from its taxable income.
  • 14) Therefore, it allowed the company to deduct a portion of the original issue discount from taxable income.
  • 15) I decided to deduct a part of the repair cost from his monthly salary.
  • 16) They can now produce much simpler accounts based on what they earned and what they spent, with expenses deducted from income.
  • 17) Both the cash interest and the vouchers are taxable, but all the tax will be deducted from the cash interest paid.
  • 18) His sentence has been halved and a further 18 days deducted as part of a scheme introduced last summer to ease jail overcrowding.
  • 19) It pays 6.25 but 20% is automatically deducted at source.
  • 20) If you do not do this, 20% will be deducted and this must be claimed back.
  • 21) If you are paid weekly, the company will not deduct tax from the first 192 you earn each week.
  • 22) Clicking to download again will transfer songs to your Ubuntu One personal cloud again and will deduct from the downloads remaining.
  • 23) If you must make these comparisons, please include ALL comparable expenses on the private education side and deduct from the public education side all of the expenses related to students that the private schools would either not accept or not retain.
  • 24) The longer you own, the more you can deduct from the tax.
  • 25) We ran into a friend having hot and sour soup and then walked home, having clocked about three miles, but we ate an extra 150 calories so that meant we'd walked off only 150 more calories to deduct from the rest of our day's eating.
  • 26) Consequently, if this isn't covered by the company, it's yet another expense to deduct from the salary offer.
  • 27) Again, this is an expense PJs should deduct from the salary offer.
  • 28) The labels deduct this cost of doing business from artist royalties.
  • 29) ‘An individual donor obtains relief by deducting the amount of the donation from his total income for the tax year in which the gift was made.’
  • 30) ‘Once set up, the employer will have little obligation other than to deduct the amount of contribution from each employee.’
  • 31) ‘The landlord said he would deduct the amount from the housing deposit.’
  • 32) ‘Essentially those companies allow me to authorise them to deduct the amount of my bill every month.’
  • 33) ‘Then in turn, after receiving your food at the stalls, they run your card through a ‘smart’ card reader which prints out a receipt and deducts the amount from your initial value, just the same way as a phone card works.’
  • 34) ‘Every pay period Caminus deducts an amount, designated by the employees, from their post-tax paycheck.’
  • 35) ‘The Contractor shall then be entitled to receive only such sum or sums (if any) as the Engineer may certify would have been due to him upon due completion by him after deducting the said amount.’
  • 36) ‘You can deduct the amount of any business loss against your other income.’
  • 37) ‘You can deduct the actual amount of your sales taxes, which means holding on to sales receipts in case of an audit.’
  • 38) ‘When they pull a bottle from the cellar, they can deduct the amount from the log to keep inventory accurate.’
  • 39) ‘This overestimation means many taxpayers are able to deduct amounts that are actually private expenses.’
  • 40) ‘You simply deduct the amount from your income on your tax return and, added bonus, it's at your highest rate of tax.’
  • 41) ‘The position of the wife is that the husband should not be entitled to deduct this amount.’
  • 42) ‘On return, they return the cost amount of the book deducting the reading charges.’
  • 43) ‘It is not a charitable donation, the money the zoo's receiving will be deducted from the final amount it gets for the land.’
  • 44) ‘The amounts deducted each year are quite small so it is a nuisance having to keep reclaiming them from Inland Revenue.’
  • 45) ‘But life insurance and pension payments will be deducted from the amounts awarded.’
  • 46) ‘Because the deal was that I'd pay for your tickets at this end and then deduct the total sum from the first prize, before sending it on.’
  • 47) ‘The salary amount cannot be deducted from or added to because of actual hours worked.’
  • 48) ‘Any severance already paid to the workers will be deducted from that amount, the judge ruled.’

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